Subjects and persons of interest in criminal investigations are likely to delete data from their devices in an attempt to remove evidence which could be incriminating. With this, the data still present or recoverable on mobile devices can be extremely beneficial to both Law Enforcement Investigators and Digital Forensic Examiners/Investigators. The sms.db should be reviewed when looking for SMS/iMessage data on an Apple mobile device; however, messages deleted by the user of the device can quickly be overwritten within the database. A new area of focus has been found within Apple devices using iOS 14.0 or later, specifically within the private/var/mobile/Library/Biome/streams/public/AppIntent/local file path of a Full File System Extraction. For the intent of being concise, the full file path above will be referred to as “the Biome directory” within this article. The Biome directory is a unique and available resource for the search of SMS/iMessage data present within the sms.db and/or removed by the user of the device. The files copy message data of SMS/iMessages from the native Chats application and store this data for a finite period of time. Knowing where to locate and how to review the data within the Biome directory can provide data from communications even when the data no longer resides within traditional storage locations.
Location of the Biome Directory:
A request was made to examine a subject’s mobile device pertaining to a narcotics crime. A Full File System Extraction of the subject’s Apple iPhone 12, iOS 14.6, was obtained and subsequently reviewed in an attempt to locate conversation data between the subject and an undercover agent. A full transcript of the conversation was possessed by the undercover agent to aid in the investigation; however, only one message from the conversation was still present in the sms.db. The Archive File from the Memory Image of the device was searched for specific message body data from the conversation, through both ASCII and Unicode. Messages from the beginning and middle of the conversation were not located within the Archive File. A message from the end of the conversation was searched within the Archive File with two results from within the Biome directory. The Biome directory file was then thoroughly reviewed and another eleven messages from the transcript were located. The Biome directory was fully reviewed and an additional 21 messages from two conversations between the subject and two separate participants were located, which discussed apparent criminal activity involving narcotics. All messages except one had been deleted by the user of the device and were no longer available within the sms.db for review. These messages were only recovered through the Biome directory and manually recorded to provide to the originating office for their investigation.
Structure of the Biome Directory:
The files within the Biome directory are each 1MB in size. The files store data until the size capacity is reached at which point the next file is generated by the device for further storage. Data within the file is not edited or removed by the device until the file itself is overwritten. Throughout all extraction reviews, the average maximum files within the Biome directory at a time was five files. The timespan covered by the five files varies on device to device with the amount of user activity. On the long end, these files can cover up to four weeks of data from low user activity or one and a half to two weeks of activity for higher user activity. These files behave as a knowledge base while the device learns the user’s most recent application usages, intents, and patterns of life to present current suggestions through Siri for future application usage. Each file is titled using a 15 digit naming convention reflecting the file creation timestamp in microseconds from midnight on 1 Jan 2001. For example, the “644529678155989” file possessed a creation date and last accessed date of 4 Jun 2021 8:01:18 PM(UTC+0). The creation date and date last accessed for each file are the same while the modified date matches the creation date of the subsequent file. i.e., File A has a creation date of 1 Jan 2021, 12:00:00 PM(UTC+0) and a modified date of 5 Jan 2021, 12:00:00 PM(UTC+0). File B then has a creation date of 5 Jan 2021, 12:00:00 PM(UTC+0).
An Advanced Logical File System Extraction of the test Apple iPhone 8 Plus, iOS 15.0.2, was conducted through Cellebrite UFED 4PC, which did not possess the Biome directory. A Full File System Extraction of the Apple device is required to gain access to the files within the Biome directory. You may be able to review and analyze the files within your extraction depending on the software used or it may be easier to save/export the files for review in another program. Once within the file, data can be narrowed using specific Application Identifiers, contact numbers, or contact entity information. An Application Identifier, also known as a Bundle ID within the Apple App Store, is a unique identifier for a specific application. For example, the Application Identifier for the Apple native Chats application is “com.apple.MobileSMS”. The data can also be searched for a contact number in both the “15551234567” and “1 (555) 123 4567” formats. Lastly, a specific contact entity can be used to narrow the data, such as “Steven”. These different ways of narrowing the data can reduce data analysis time or aid in meeting the specific scope of a Search Warrant, searching for “com.apple.MobileSMS” will yield all the SMS/iMessage sent and received communications within the file while a specific contact number could yield solely communication with one entity.
Testing to Determine Data Population for the Biome Directory:
Full File System Extractions of Apple iPhones possessing different iOS versions were obtained and reviewed for the presence of the Biome directory. It was determined that any iOS 13.7 and older did not have the file location. All iOS versions 14.0 and newer, to include iOS 15.0.2, which was the most recent iOS at the time of the examination, possessed the file location. A review of all iOS 14.0 updates was conducted to attempt to locate a change to account for the Biome directory added to Library which was inconclusive. The list of iOS 14.0 updates appeared too vague to determine the Biome directory addition. The hypothesis was formed that the Biome directory was directly related to Siri Suggestions through additional review of the directory itself and interface with test Apple iPhone devices.
Siri Suggestions “analyzes how you use your devices and apps to provide personalized suggestions and better search results using local, on-device processing, and syncs across your devices with end-to-end encryption using iCloud” . All native applications, or applications preinstalled to the device, and all third-party applications, or applications installed by the user to the device, are by default selected to incorporate usage into Siri Suggestions. “Siri uses local, on-device processing to learn how you use your devices and apps in order to personalize your experience. Using information stored on your device, such as your Safari browsing history, emails, messages, images, notifications, and contacts, as well as information donated or contributed by other installed apps, Siri can suggest shortcuts and provide suggestions in searches, share sheet, calendar, Look Up, Visual Look Up, Safari, apps, and more.” . The user of the device has the option to “see and control the full list of features that Siri personalizes and apps that Siri suggests shortcuts for in Settings > Siri & Search. To stop apps from contributing information to personalize Siri, go to Settings > Siri & Search and tap the app name, then tap to turn off Learn from this App” . The likely unforeseen aspect of this feature is that message content of SMS/iMessage communications are also stored within the file structure of the Biome registry. Removing the data from the native Chats applications does not impact the data within the Biome directory as the data is written during the initial SMS/iMessage action and stored by the phone until the Biome directory files are overwritten.
A Full File System Extraction of an Apple iPhone 8 Plus, iOS 14.7.1, test phone was obtained and the Biome directory was reviewed, prior to any additional changes to the device, through Cellebrite Physical Analyzer. A search was conducted for “com.apple” within the file which yielded 86 results. “Com.apple” is the prefix for the common Apple Application Identifier of native applications, or applications pre-installed by Apple on the device at initial startup. Of the 86 results from the “com.apple” search within the file there were zero results for “com.apple.MobileSMS”.
“Learn from this App” was deselected within “Messages” in “Siri & Search”. The message ‘Test iMessage’ was sent from the Apple iPhone 8 Plus to another Apple iPhone. The second Apple iPhone received the ‘Test iMessage’ and replied with the message ‘Reply’, which was successfully received by the Apple iPhone 8 Plus test device.
A Full File System Extraction of the test device was obtained. A review of the corresponding Biome directory file revealed 20 search results for “com.apple.MobileSMS”; however, these results were different in format to those that will be reviewed further within this analysis which contain message body data and other key data values.
Figure 1 – Depicting the Chats Application Identifier, “com.apple.MobileSMS”, outlined in light blue.
Figure 1 above displays six of the “com.apple.MobileSMS” results through HxD, outlined in light blue. These identifiers appear to show activity within the Chats application but no pertinent data for the message body, message recipient, or timestamps of the message. The sms.db, sms.db-shm, and sms.db-wal files were exported and opened within DB Browser.
Figure 2 – Depicting all messages present within the sms.db.
Figure 2 displays the SQL query generated in DB Browser to obtain the message body, contact numbers (redacted), timestamp, and message direction from sms.db to verify the message content was extracted from the device. The messages sent and received on the test Apple iPhone 8 Plus were verified present on the device but the data was not within the Biome directory.
“Learn from this App” was selected within “Messages” in “Siri & Search”. The message ‘Second test message’ was sent from the Apple iPhone 8 Plus to another Apple iPhone. The second Apple iPhone received the ‘Second test message’ and replied with the message ‘Reply’, which was successfully received by the Apple iPhone 8 Plus test device.
A Full File System Extraction of the test device was obtained. A review of the corresponding Biome directory file revealed four additional search results for “com.apple.MobileSMS”. There were two “com.apple.MobileSMS” results for the outgoing message and the incoming message. The data reflected for Chats application messages solely encompassed the second sent message and second received message, data for the first sent and received messages was not present as the permission to “Learn from this App” was not applied at the time of sending and receiving.
Figure 3 – Depicting the Outgoing Message within the Biome File.
Figure 3 displays the pertinent hexadecimal and Unicode data in HxD, used to manually obtain the outgoing message within the file. This method is beneficial if the same message was deleted from the sms.db and could no longer be parsed by forensic software.
Reviewing the data we can see the following:
The message body “Second test message” is outlined in green.
The message recipient is outlined in red, redacted.
The Application ID “com.apple.MobileSMS” is outlined in light blue.
The Time Zone “America/New York” is outlined in orange.
The chat identifier “248381E6-CA22-4DD0-913F-2FA740CD2F9E” from the sms.db-wal is outlined in purple.
Lastly, the timestamp is outlined in dark red.
This timestamp within the Hex is “41 C3 91 75 7E 52 24 AB”, which is converted to 22 OCT 2021 12:50:04 PM(UTC+0). This timestamp is in Apple Plist Time, which is the number of seconds since midnight, 1 Jan 2001, expressed in Hex. While the seconds since midnight, 1 Jan 2001, for the message was “656599804”, the same conversion expressed through Hex is “41 C3 91 75 7E 52 24 AB”. The conversion of the timestamp will be fully portrayed following all test descriptions within this article.
Manually obtained, this can be documented as “At 12:50:04 PM(UTC+0), 22 Oct 21, the user of the device sent ‘Second test message’ to (redacted).”
Figure 4 – Depicting the Incoming Message within the Biome File.
Figure 4 displays the pertinent hexadecimal and Unicode data in HxD, used to manually obtain the incoming message within the file.
Reviewing the data provides the same and some additional data in comparison to an outgoing message:
The message body “Reply” is outlined in green.
The message recipient (the Apple iPhone 8 Plus test device – extracted device) is outlined in red, redacted.
The message sender (sending Apple iPhone) is outlined in yellow, redacted.
“P.X.R”, outlined in purple, represents the message direction and shows this is an incoming message.
The Application ID “com.apple.MobileSMS” is outlined in light blue.
The Time Zone “America/New York” is outlined in orange.
Lastly, the timestamp is outlined in dark red. This timestamp within the Hex is “41 C3 91 75 8F 3D 66 8C”. Again this is in Apple Plist Time, and a convenient conversion capability for this time stamp is available through Doubleblak Digital Forensics’ website .
Manually obtained, this can be documented as “At 12:50:38 PM(UTC+0), 22 Oct 21, the user of the device received the message ‘Reply’ from (redacted).”
“Learn from this App” was again deselected within “Messages” in “Siri & Search”. The message ‘Third test message’ was sent from the Apple iPhone 8 Plus to another Apple iPhone. The second Apple iPhone received the ‘Third test message’ and replied with the message ‘Reply x3’, which was successfully received by the Apple iPhone 8 Plus test device.
A Full File System Extraction of the test device was obtained. A review of the corresponding Biome directory file revealed zero additional search results for “com.apple.MobileSMS”. The sms.db, sms.db-shm, and sms.db-wal files were exported and opened within DB Browser.
Figure 5 – Depicting all messages present within the sms.db.
Figure 5 displays the SQL query generated in DB Browser to obtain the message body, contact numbers (redacted), timestamp, and message direction from sms.db to verify the message content was extracted from the device. The messages sent and received on the test Apple iPhone 8 Plus were verified present on the device but the data was not within the Biome directory.
Breakdown of the Apple Plist Timestamp Conversion:
The Apple Plist timestamp is a conversion from a hexadecimal expression into the number of seconds since 1 Jan 2001. Here, we will show the steps converting “41C391757E5224AB” into a readable timestamp value.
To be more specific, the hexadecimal expression is a double precision 64-bit hexadecimal expression which is converted to a decimal floating-point value.
The first step is converting the hexadecimal expression into binary.
Figure 6 – Depicting the Hexadecimal to Binary Conversion.
This value is broken down prior to conversion to decimal.
Figure 8 – Depicting the Separation of the Binary Value and Conversion into Decimal.
The Bit 63 Sign Bit is “0”, because the hexadecimal value is not negative.
Bits 62 – 52 of the total binary value is “10000011100”, which is also the binary value for the first three digits of the hexadecimal expression, “41C”. The binary value “10000011100” converted into decimal is “1052”. “1023”, a constant value, is subtracted from “1052” to obtain an exponent, which is “29” in this case.
Bits 51 – 0 encompass what is called the “significand”. The significand is composed of the remaining binary value with an added whole number before the decimal point. The remaining “391757E5224AB” of the hexadecimal is converted to a binary value which results in “0011100100010111010101111110010100100010010010101011”. From this, the significand is “1.0011100100010111010101111110010100100010010010101011”. The significand converted to decimal is “1.22301244110193851888”.
Putting it all together, we multiply “2” by the exponent “29” which is then multiplied against the significand.
Figure 8 – Depicting the Final Mathematical Expression, Resulting in Seconds since midnight on 1 Jan 2001.
656599804.64174401759903481856 is the number of seconds since midnight on 1 Jan 2001 for our timestamp, or 22 OCT 2021 12:50:04 PM(UTC+0). It should be noted that all numbers after the decimal point in the final solution are not required for a conversion to the final timestamp, the date/time reached is the same with or without them, but these numbers are beneficial when converting the duration of a telephone call. Cellebrite Physical Analyzer expresses this value to seven decimal places is its conversion. Understanding of reaching the value to hundreds and thousands of decimal places is pertinent for verifying time values in the manner of call duration values. A convenient conversion capability for this time stamp is available through Doubleblak Digital Forensics’ website .
The data still present or recoverable on mobile devices can be extremely beneficial to both Law Enforcement Investigators and Digital Forensic Examiners/Investigators as subjects and persons of interest in criminal investigations are likely to delete or remove data from their devices. When the sms.db can no longer provide the best evidence for the investigation the Biome registry can be reviewed for recent SMS/iMessage data. The ability to locate and review the Biome directory can turn an investigation and provide critical data available even when it no longer resides within traditional storage locations.
The data found in this paper is vital to the DFIR community. It offers a different approach to try to recover deleted data from recent SMS or iMessages, somewhere other than the SQLite sms.db database.
One reviewer reported finding different results during their testing. Another reviewer pointed out that there is the potential to recover significantly more data than just strings and dates. Common Data Types identified by Apple for this structure includes Contacts, Images, Monetary, Logical, and Files. Additionally, it is possible to create custom objects.
Future work could include documenting the structure for files identified in the AppIntent directory. Additional work could also include determining what other data is being stored with the “com.apple.MobileSMS” label.
Jessica Hyde, David Loveall (subreviewer) (Methodology Review)
Johann Polewczyk (Methodology Review, Validated Review Using Reviewer Generated Datasets)
I would like to confirm the highlighted section in relation to the content in Figure #5. Following the write-up, which is a very great resource, Figure #5 suggest it represents the contents of the “test device”, which is the Apple iPhone 8 Plus. If this is true, it appears that the representation of the message direction in Figure #5 are the opposite of what the highlighted text shows. If in fact the Apple iPhone 8 Plus was sending the “test messages”, they are now showing as “incoming” messages.